Generation of Computer A computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with Information. The term computer is derived from the Latin term ‘computer’, this means to calculate or programmable machine. A computer can not do anything without a Program.
It represents the decimal numbers through a string of binary digits. The Word ‘Computer’ usually refers to the Center Processor Unit plus Internal memory. Many Types Generation of Computer.
Charles Babbage is called the “Grand Father” of the computer. The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine. It uses read-only memory in the form of punch cards.
A computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of the set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
Digital Computer Definition:-
The basic components of a modern digital computer are Input Device, Output Device, Central Processor Unit (CPU), mass storage device and memory. A typical modern computer uses LSI Chips.
Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images, etc.
The process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.
The output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. The output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for future use.
Computer Classification: Size and Power
Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling, and functionality.
According to functionality, computers are classified as:
• Analog Computer: A computer that represents numbers by some continuously variable physical quantity, whose variations mimic the properties of some system being modeled.
• Personal computer: A personal computer is a computer small and a low cost. The term”personal computer” is used to describe desktop computers (desktops).
• Workstation: A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, a workstation is just a generic term for a user’s machine (client machine) in contrast to a “server” or “mainframe.”
• Minicomputer: A minicomputer isn’t very mini. At least, not in the way most of us think of mini. You know how big your personal computer is and its related family.
• Mainframe: It refers to the kind of large computer that runs an entire corporation.
• Supercomputer: It is the biggest, fastest, and most expensive computers on earth.
• Microcomputer: Your personal computer is a microcomputer.
Generation of Computer:-
The history of computer development is often referred to as the different generation of computing devices. A generation refers to the stage of improvement in the product development process. Each new generation has to batter smaller more advance than the previous generation before it.
New discoveries are costly being developed that affect the way we live, work and play. Each generation of computers is characterized by major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate resulting in increasingly smaller, chipper and powerful, and more efficient and reliable devices.
First Generation ( 1946 – 1959)
Second ,, ( 1959 – 1965)
Third ,, ( 1965 – 1971)
Fourth ,, ( 1971 – 1985)
Fifth ,, (1985 – on words)
First Generation Of Computer:-
All Subsequently computers after mark I was all electronic the early first-generation computers were powered by thousands of vacuum tubes.
The first computer used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory magnetic drums were ones use as a primary storage device but has since been implemented or auxiliary storage device.
(Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculation)
(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
(Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer)
Characteristics of the first computer:-
Human operates to set switches
Machine and assembly languages
Magnetic tube and magnetic drum for external storage
Second Generation Of Computer:-
Transistor replaced vacuum tubes ushered in the second generation computer transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Today latest microprocessor contains tens of millions of microscopic transistors.
Characteristics of the second computer:-
Magnetic care storage
Magnetic tape and disk for ext. storage
Punched cards and paper for output
High-level language – cob o/PL/1 Basic and others
Third Generation Of Computer:-
During this time integrated circuits with transistor resisters and capacitors were etched onto a piece of silicon. This reduces the price and size of the computer adding to a general trend in the computer industry. The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of the computer.
Characteristics of the third generation:-
Improved disk storage
Monitor and keyboard for input and output
More high-level language, including RPG and Pascal.
A first complete operating system meant less involvement for human operations.
Fourth Generation Of Computer:-
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers as thousands of integrated circuits we built onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip contained a C.P.U in the world of a personal computer, the terms microprocessor and C.P.U used interchangeably. All the heart of personal computers and most workstations sit a microprocessor.
Characteristics of the fourth generation:-
Magnetic disk most common ext. storage
Introduction of microcomputer
Fourth-generation language (4GLS) emerged and application s/w for microcomputer become popular.
Fifth Generation Of Computer:-
Computers have got timer more reliable, and many times faster. Computers are mostly built using components from many different co-operations computers have become more and more online oriented in modern times, especially with the development of worldwide web popular companies like Google and yahoo were started because of the internet.
Characteristics of fifth-generation:-
Development of true artificial intelligence.
Development of natural language processing.
Advancement in parallel processing.
Advancement in superconductor technology.